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Cuba: 'Bringing revolution's humanity to all aspects of life'
Lavender & red, part 109
Published Aug 18, 2007 10:45 PM
“I want to bring the revolution’s humanity to those aspects of life
that it hasn’t reached because of old prejudices,” Mariela Castro
Espín, who has worked hard to eradicate pre-revolutionary prejudices about
same-sex love, transsexuality and gender variance in Cuba, said in summer 2006.
(Reuters, June 29, 2006)
Castro Espín is director of Cuba’s National Center for Sex Education
(CENESEX), which has accomplished a great deal in a relatively short time to
replace prejudices about same-sex love and transsexuality with positive
CENESEX created its own Internet Web
site—www.cenesex.sld.cu—shortly after the 16th World Congress of
Sexology met in Havana in March 2003.
FIST and Workers World Party delegation
with staff of CENESEX in their Havana office,
Photo: Namibia Donadio
CENESEX’s site incorporates a section on sexual diversity, which, in
Spanish and English, offers basic information and opportunities to consult with
experts and to voice personal opinions.
The site gets right to the point about its objective, which it states is to
“overcome the taboos and prejudices that persist about same-sex love:
Being homosexual or bisexual is not a disease, it is not synonymous with
perversity, nor does it constitute a crime.”
Homosexuality, the Web site makes clear, “is a sexual orientation that is
not caused by seduction at any age, it is not contagious, and is not acquired
by educational defects or negative examples in the family
This Internet site receives the most visits—150,000 “hits” a
day—of any Cuban World Wide Web portal. (IPS/GIN, July 3, 2004)
Castro Espín said in the summer of 2004 that these developments are
“the result of an effort of more than 30 years, and now we are seeing its
fruits more clearly.”
Work accomplished, work to do
When asked by a BBC reporter in September 2006 whether perceptions about
homosexuality had changed in Cuban society, Mariela Castro Espín answered,
“I think so; it has changed very much.”
She told interviewer Eduardo García Jiménez: “I do believe that
since the 1990s there is greater acceptance of the presence of homosexuals by
some portion of the population and public institutions. That does not mean that
the contradiction has been resolved for all individuals at all levels of
society. (“Alma Mater,” journal of the University of Havana,
reprinted in Green Left Weekly, March 3, 2004)
Castro Espín added, “I think we are at a good moment to implement
policies that are more explicit about the defense of the human rights of
homosexuals, so that we are better prepared to confront any manifestation of
discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. I see this very humanistic
attempt to achieve greater respect for the rights of homosexuals as the waging
of a battle of ideas in our society. I believe this notion has to be part of
the cultural and political battle because that would mean a cultural, social
and political strengthening for the Cuban Revolution.”
Castro Espín said she is advocating for an amendment to the Cuban
Constitution to add homosexuality to the groups against which discrimination is
outlawed. “It is a proposal I am making from my position of
responsibility as the director of the CENESEX. I assure you it has been heard
by receptive listeners. My proposal is in no way removed or distant from the
spirit of the Revolution, or from the entire process that has brought about
this call to a battle of ideas.
“It would be wonderful to be able to spark meaningful, inter-group
discussion on this subject,” Castro Espín emphasized, “so that
Cuban society could develop a healthier culture of sexuality, one that is
fairer, that helps to erode old, erroneous beliefs and prejudices that
emphasize sexual orientation.
“Something like this would put the revolution even more in line with its
humanistic ethic; the Cuban Revolution has been possible because of the
participation of all men and women, of all Cubans who have identified with the
conquests and dreams of that social project. Among all those who have
participated there are also people of diverse sexual orientations.”
Don’t measure with imperial ruler
As earlier articles in this series documented, the CIA, Hollywood and corporate
media tried to deflect resistance to U.S. imperialism’s covert war
against Cuba, and the domestic discrimination, police brutality and bashing of
same-sex-loving and gender-variant people that are commonplace in the U.S., by
focusing on the onerous tasks Cuba’s revolution faced in uprooting
centuries of prejudice about same-sex love. Of course, each poisonous seed had
been planted and cultivated by U.S. capitalism and, earlier, Spanish
Today, the Cuban Revolution has made enormous strides in raising popular
consciousness about sexual liberation, including same-sex love. Building ties
of unity between the lesbian, gay, bi and trans (LGBT) movement in the U.S. and
the Cuban Revolution require conscious leadership of the most resolutely
anti-imperialist activists in the liberation movement for LGBT and other
sexually, sex- and gender-oppressed peoples.
Yet some activists in the U.S. still argue that Cuba won’t have
“passed the test” until lesbians and gays are “out” in
Cuba with their own autonomous organizational formations.
Lesbians and gay men in the U.S. and other capitalist countries are
“out” in order to unite against shared and/or overlapping
mechanisms of oppression.
Castro Espín stated categorically to journalist Mary Lamey via a
translator, “There is no official repression of lesbians and gays in
Cuba. What remains are social and cultural reactions that must be transformed,
the same as in many other countries.” (Canada.com, The Gazette, July 29,
She pointed to the bashings of transsexuals and homosexuals in England and
other imperialist countries. “This doesn’t exist in Cuba. The Cuban
population is much more respectful of differences than in other places,”
she emphasized. “When I’m afraid I will find a very strong
resistance, I find a high degree of sensibility in the Cuban
Cubans defining their ‘liberation’
In a capitalist country, being “out” is not only an assertion of
individual identity and personhood. The movement to end the oppression has to
be “out” and independent, as well.
That is because of the LGBT movement’s relationship to its own ruling
class in capitalist countries. In the class struggle, it is imperative for the
movement to break free of its own capitalist bosses and their ideology. In that
case, the movement is only as powerful as it is independent.
But what about a socialist country in which the laboring class rules and is
trying to build socialism in the liberated turf of a workers’ state? What
would Cuban men who have sex with men, women who have sex with women, and
bisexuals, transsexual and transgender Cubans gain by identifying
“away” from their own class?
Castro Espín addressed the question of organizing for change in Cuba in
her 2003 interview with Eduardo Jiménez García. “I think the
greatest difficulty is that there is no unifying and convincing project,
because male and female homosexuals are as heterogeneous as
heterosexuals,” she said. “Yet, I don’t see this as an
obstacle; I see it as a complicated reality.
“I believe that male and female homosexuals should participate more in
different loci of social and political discussion, despite the prejudices, so
they can make their truth, their real need for equality, their beliefs known,
in order to gain support from the scientific community, and in that way bring
to bear arguments that can effect the changes that are necessary in
society—and see that they are just.”
However, an international network of both LGBT social democrats and those far
to the right of them is developing in the imperialist countries, particularly
the U.S. and Britain. It makes an appeal to Cubans, and others in countries
menaced by imperial powers, to identify first and foremost based on what is
presumed to be an identical and shared sexuality. In turn, this network asserts
its readiness to defend gay and lesbian Cubans and others—but only
against their own people, culture and national liberation struggle.
When aligned with overall and sometimes specific imperialist interests, such a
position can offer a “left cover” for regime change—through
covert and/or military intervention.
Cubans are defining their own liberation.
The Cuban Revolution merits the support of progressives and communists around
the world, without demands that it measure up as “perfect” using an
imperial ruler. A socialist revolution is a process, not a single act. Solving
the economic and social problems that the capitalists cannot and will not
tackle is the dynamic forward motion of revolution.
Regarding the revolution’s efforts to eliminate old prejudice against
homosexuality, Fidel Castro concluded during a 1988 interview with a Galician
television station: “Given that we can make mistakes, we obsessively
follow the idea [of] what is just, right and best for the people, and what is
most humane for our people and our society. However, the task is not
easy—I think that each time we get closer to the right criteria for
making the world we want. Nonetheless, I think that we still have many faults,
and that future generations will have to continue to perfect this new
The whole population of Cuba—of all races, sexes, genders, sexualities,
ages and abilities—does not need to be defended against its own culture
or its own revolution. It needs and deserves defense against the U.S. blockade
of its island and every other illegal act of imperialist war, overt and covert,
which impedes revolutionary progress.
International support for Cuba’s right to sovereignty and
self-determination will allow the island’s population to spend more time,
energy and resources on socialist construction, rather than on defense.
It is the LGBT movements in the imperialist citadels that have to break with
their own ruling classes in order to build bonds of genuine international
solidarity. It’s a hard position to take. It requires ideological valor;
the refusal to remain silent about the emperors’ “new”
The Cuban Revolution has had to take up the tasks that history presented it,
including the eventual eradication of the legacies of racism, sexism and
In order to move forward toward their own liberation, the LGBT and other
progressive movements in the U.S. and other capitalist countries have to combat
anti-communism—which is, in the long run, a defense of
capitalism—and develop a powerful anti-imperialist current that can
extend its solidarity to Cuba and all countries fighting for their sovereignty
and self-determination against finance capital.
Revolutionary Cuba—the “hope of the hemisphere”—has
done a better job dealing with its tasks.
Next: Rainbow Solidarity for the Cuban Five.
To find out more about Cuba, read parts 86-106 of Lavender & Red at
E-mail: [email protected]
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