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U.S. policies doomed to fail in Latin America
Published Jun 12, 2007 11:01 PM
Latin America at the Crossroads—Domination, Crisis, Popular Movements
& Political Alternatives, by Roberto Regalado Álvarez, 2007,
Ocean Press, 263 pages, available from
The Cuban Marxist economist Roberto Regalado, in the preface to the English
edition of his book, takes note of the “challenge to write a book that
deals with current-day events.” The December 2005 election of Evo Morales
as president of Bolivia had forced him to revise the last two chapters before
It is likely Regalado would now like the chance for another revision. Since he
wrote those lines the Ecuadorans have elected leftist Rafael Correa president,
Sandinista leader Daniel Ortega won the presidential election in Nicaragua and
Hugo Chávez was re-elected by a landslide in revolutionary Venezuela.
These new developments, however, only serve to establish Regalado’s main
• U.S. imperialism needs to exploit Latin America’s resources
and labor even more mercilessly than it did in the period up to the late 1970s.
It does this by imposing the policies of
“neoliberalism”—essentially, using the state power to aid the
banks and transnational corporations to concentrate capital while never using
the state to aid poor and oppressed groups or individuals. Washington has tried
to do this with minimum intervention, but this has turned out to be impossible;
the U.S. is again intervening, subverting and threatening military
• Washington and the South American oligarchy have allowed the
electoral arena to be open to more popular candidates with the plan of gaining
a consensus of support for the system. The role of these parties is supposed to
be to alternate with the right wing in administering the same neoliberal
program. This has led to victories of left-leaning candidates and parties,
which are unable to offer significant concessions to the workers and poor
within the confines of the existing system.
• These changes, with a big impulse from the 1991 Zapatista uprising
in Chiapas, Mexico, are nourishing a debate in the Latin American left. The
potential for a struggle for a socialist alternative is gaining credibility,
even if such a struggle is not on the order of the day; Colombia is the only
country where an armed struggle is under way. This socialist alternative offers
the only solution to the crisis of contemporary capitalism.
Regalado is currently the section chief in the Department of International
Relations of the Cuban Communist Party. A former diplomat in the U.S. and
Nicaragua, he has researched and written on Latin American politics since the
1970s. He also appears to be well acquainted with U.S. politics and even with
developments in the U.S. progressive movement.
The book is effective on a few different levels. It summarizes the recent
economic development of the worldwide imperialist system and especially in
Latin America. It goes over Latin American history and reviews in detail the
change in the type of imperialist domination and exploitation from the earlier
part of the 20th century to the period since the mid-1970s.
It reviews the political struggles within the Latin American left—the
social movements, social-democratic parties and the broad electoral fronts that
have led to the elections of “left” candidates or parties in
Brazil, Uruguay, Bolivia and Venezuela. The next edition will undoubtedly
include Ecuador and Nicaragua.
Regalado also makes a devastating critique of the role of European social
democracy and the parties of the Second International, especially those that,
like British Prime Minister Tony Blair’s Labour Party, welcomed their new
role as administering social cutbacks. In the immediate post-World-War-II
period, these parties ran ‘’welfare states” to counter the
challenge from the socialist camp, and claimed they would change capitalism.
But, Regalado notes:
“It was not social democracy that reformed capitalism, but capitalism
that reformed social democracy. This was clear, since by the end of the 1970s,
social democracy was participating in dismantling the welfare state and
functioning as the spearhead of European imperialism in the South.”
The author discusses the conflicts between socialist Cuba and the U.S., and
briefly discusses the Caribbean, but focuses on Latin America. It would be
interesting to see what he would write about the U.S. war on Iraq and the
impact of the Iraqi resistance on Washington’s ability to intervene in
South America, if that were within the scope of the book.
The dilemma the U.S. faces is that the neoliberal scenario continually narrows
popular support for the system and its institutions. It wipes out the middle
class and impoverishes workers. Thus imperialism is finding it necessary to
intervene more directly, as in Haiti and Venezuela, in the Mexican election,
etc. While at present the conditions don’t exist for a struggle for
socialism, the continued deterioration of living conditions and the threat to
humanity from the crisis of capitalism will soon raise this question anew.
“Left political alternatives,” writes Regalado, “will have to
include the struggle for revolution.” And “the use of some type of
revolutionary violence will be inevitable, because those holding power in the
world will cling to it to the very end.”
This conclusion, while not new in classical Marxist literature, bears
repetition in this post-Soviet period. To understand how Regalado comes to it,
it’s best to read his book.
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